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 Post subject: Sterlitamak - Republic of Bashkortostan
Post Number:#1  PostPosted: 16 Jan 2011 09:31 
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Sterlitamak - Republic of Bashkortostan

Sterlitamak (Russian: Стерлитама́к) is the second largest city in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the left bank of the Belaya River, 121 kilometers (75 mi) from Ufa. The city's name comes from the Bashkir language and literally means "mouth of the river Sterlya". Population: 264,362 (2002 Census). Sterlitamak was founded in 1766 as a port for the distribution of salt mined up the river. Today it is an important center of chemical production.

Sterlitamak was granted town status in 1781 and grew rapidly during the industrialization in the late 19th century. At the time, local landowners established beer brewing, vodka distiling, and leather working industries. Sterlitamak was briefly the capital of the Bashkir Autonomous Republic after the revolution, but the capital was moved to Ufa in 1922. During World War II, several factories from the western Soviet Union were evacuated to Sterlitamak, further enlarging the city.

History

In the early 18th century, a Tatar village on the Ufa–Orenburg road with a post office ("yam") existed on the site of modern Sterlitamak.

Merchant Tetushev, Sawa Nikiforovich, by decree of Empress Catherine II has founded the salt ghat on Ashkadar river (Ashkadarskaya pier), which after the merger with the village Sterlitamak becomes known as "Sterlitamak pier".

During the Peasants' War of 1773-1775 (Pugachev uprising) Sterlitamak was under the control of insurgents, and was subsequently burned. After the restoration it became the administrative center of Sterlitamaksky Uyezd, and was subsequently granted town status in 1781.

Prior to the abolition of serfdom, the most influential landowners of Sterlitamaksky Uyezd were the Levashovs (from the village of Levashovka, now a part of the city), the Mikhaylovs (from the village of Mikhaylovka; now Mikhaylovka microdistrict), the Belousovs (from Belousovo, merged into the city in 2001). In the town, there were private companies and a variety of handicraft industries (leather and leather products, flour mill, the production of vodka, beer). Major employers of the city were Usmanov, Bayazitov, and Utyamyshev. After the abolition of serfdom, the city has grown significantly in numbers and territory; there were large-scale production enterprises. In 1870, the building of Sterlitamak City Duma was constructed.

After the February Revolution, Sterlitamak Council nationalized banks, the telegraph, and the main industrial enterprises in the city. By the decree of the Central Executive Committee on March 23, 1919, Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (BASSR) was proclaimed, and Sterlitamak became the capital of the autonomy. Later, in 1922, the capital was moved to Ufa as the Soviet government began transforming the town into an industrial centre.

Before World War II, Sterlitamak was growing rapidly, mainly due to consolidation of enterprises and the construction of new ones. In 1922, the first power plant was launched, supplying the mills and sawmills with energy. Leather sheepskin factory and sawmill were merged into one large sawmill.

In 1930, Sterlitamaksky District was created (at that time 24,000 people lived in Sterlitamak), and oil started to be extracted in 1932 on its territory. Two towns were established in the vicinity of Sterlitamak to tend to the oil fields—Ishimbay 21 kilometers (13 mi) southeast, and Salavat 26 kilometers (16 mi) south. At the same time, the railway was laid at Sterlitamak (mainly for freight), and in 1934 the first freight train had arrived. In connection with all these changes, the population of the town prior to 1939 increased by 58% and reached 37,900 people.

During the Great Patriotic War, many industries were evacuated to Sterlitamak: soda and cement factories, the factory "Red Proletarian", Odessa, Machine-Tool Plant named after Lenin, Moscow Shoe Factory, and Voronezh State Drama Theater.

In 1960, a telephone relay station was built in Sterlitamak. The first trolleybus line in Bashkortostan was put into operation in 1961. The main reason for this decision was a bad environmental situation up into the 1980s. Thus, by the end of 1980, Sterlitamak had appeared in the list of the most polluted cities in the country because of the amount of harmful emissions.

Due to the sharp rise in employment capacity in the city, it was decided to extend the city further to the east, to the Belaya River, and to construct bypass roads for freight transport from the west between Sterlitamak and Salavat. By 1984, the population reached 237,900.

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 Post subject: Re: Sterlitamak - Republic of Bashkortostan
Post Number:#2  PostPosted: 16 Jan 2011 09:32 
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Sterlitamak - Republic of Bashkortostan

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 Post subject: Re: Sterlitamak - Republic of Bashkortostan
Post Number:#3  PostPosted: 16 Jan 2011 09:55 
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 Post subject: Re: Sterlitamak - Republic of Bashkortostan
Post Number:#4  PostPosted: 16 Jan 2011 09:59 
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